PVD (Physical Vapor Deposition) Coating Temperature Control Systms
Introduction to PVD
PVD refers to the use of low-voltage, high-current arc discharge technology under vacuum conditions. It uses gas discharge to evaporate the target and ionize the evaporated substances and gases. It uses the acceleration of the electric field to ionize the evaporated substances and their reactions. The product is deposited on the workpiece.
Development of PVD technology
PVD technology appeared in the late 1970s. The films prepared have the advantages of high hardness, low friction coefficient, good wear resistance and chemical stability. The initial successful application in the field of high-speed steel cutting tools attracted great attention from manufacturing industries around the world. While developing high-performance and high-reliability coating equipment, people also conducted more in-depth coatings on cemented carbide and ceramic cutting tools. layer application research. Compared with the CVD process, the PVD process has a low processing temperature and has no effect on the bending strength of the tool material below 600°C. The internal stress state of the film is compressive stress, which is more suitable for coating precision and complex carbide tools; PVD The process has no adverse impact on the environment and is in line with the development direction of modern green manufacturing. At present, PVD coating technology has been widely used in the coating treatment of carbide end mills, drill bits, step drills, oil hole drills, reamers, taps, indexable milling inserts, special-shaped tools, welding tools, etc. PVD technology not only improves the bonding strength between the film and the tool base material, but the coating composition has also evolved from the first generation TiN to TiC, TiCN, ZrN, CrN, MoS2, TiAlN, TiAlCN, TiN-AlN, CNx, DLC and ta- C and other multi-composite coatings.
PVD technology for coating
Enhanced magnetron cathode arc: Cathodic arc technology uses low voltage and high current to ionize the target into an ion state under vacuum conditions, thereby completing the deposition of thin film materials. The enhanced magnetron cathode arc uses the combined effect of electromagnetic fields to effectively control the arc on the target surface, resulting in a higher ionization rate of the material and better film performance.
Filtered cathode arc: Filtered cathode arc (FCA) is equipped with an efficient electromagnetic filtration system, which can filter out macroscopic particles and ion clusters in the plasma generated by the ion source. The ionization rate of deposited particles after magnetic filtration is 100%. And it can filter out large particles, so the prepared film is very dense, smooth and smooth, has good corrosion resistance and has strong bonding force with the body.
Magnetron sputtering: In a vacuum environment, through the combined action of voltage and magnetic field, the target is bombarded with ionized inert gas ions, causing the target to be ejected in the form of ions, atoms or molecules and deposited on the substrate A film forms on it. Depending on the ionization power source used, both conductive and non-conductive materials can be sputtered as targets.
Ion beam DLC: Hydrocarbon gas is ionized into plasma in the ion source. Under the combined action of the electromagnetic field, the ion source releases carbon ions. The energy of the ion beam is controlled by adjusting the voltage applied to the plasma. A beam of hydrocarbon ions is directed onto the substrate, and the deposition rate is proportional to the ion current density. The ion beam source of star arc coating uses high voltage, so the ion energy is larger, which makes the film and the substrate have a good bonding force; the ion current is larger, making the deposition speed of the DLC film faster. The main advantage of ion beam technology is that it can deposit ultra-thin and multi-layer structures, process control accuracy can reach several angstroms, and can minimize defects caused by particle contamination during the process.
PVD coating process temperature control
During the PVD coating process, metal vapor or ions produced by evaporation or sputtering of the material are deposited on the surface of the substrate. The choice of temperature has a significant impact on the quality and performance of the coating. Generally speaking, higher temperatures help improve the density and bonding strength of the coating, but too high temperatures may cause surface deformation or oxidation of the substrate, thereby reducing the adhesion and quality of the coating.
The selection of PVD coating process temperature should be determined based on the characteristics of the coating material and substrate. For common coating materials such as gold, silver, aluminum, gold, etc., the general process temperature range is 150°C to 500°C. Within this range, better coating structure and performance can be achieved. However, for some special coating materials or substrates, higher or lower temperatures may be required.
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