Liquid Nitrogen Refrigerator
The principle of liquid nitrogen as a refrigerator refrigerant is based on the low-temperature characteristics and phase change process of liquid nitrogen. Liquid nitrogen refers to the liquid form of nitrogen below its critical temperature (-147°C). The low-temperature characteristics of liquid nitrogen make it an ideal refrigerant and is widely used in freezing technology.
The working principle of liquid nitrogen refrigerant can be divided into three steps: compression, cooling and expansion.
First, liquid nitrogen is compressed into high-pressure gas through a compressor. During this process, the temperature of the liquid nitrogen rises but remains within the low temperature range. The function of the compressor is to compress liquid nitrogen into high-pressure gas for the subsequent cooling process.
Next, the high-pressure gas is cooled by passing through a condenser. A condenser is a heat exchanger that rapidly drops the temperature of high-pressure gas by bringing it into contact with the surrounding environment. During this process, the high-pressure gas gradually cools into liquid nitrogen. The function of the condenser is to cool the high-pressure gas into liquid nitrogen for the subsequent expansion process.
Finally, the liquid nitrogen expands into a cryogenic gas through an expansion valve. The expansion valve is a throttling device that limits the flow of liquid nitrogen and reduces its pressure, allowing it to rapidly expand into a cryogenic gas. During this process, the temperature of the liquid nitrogen will further drop to achieve the freezing effect. The function of the expansion valve is to expand liquid nitrogen into cryogenic gas to provide a cooling effect.
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