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Data Center Chilled Water System

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Data Center Chilled Water System

 

Driven by developments in artificial intelligence, edge computing and the Internet of Things, modular data centers have become a critical component of successful operations for many businesses. The increasing reliance on computing makes the limitations of traditional modular data centers even more apparent. These disadvantages include a lack of flexibility, inefficiencies due to scale, and high costs associated with local transaction work.

Demands for more critical power, flexible cooling options and just-in-time IT capacity are also changing. Today, traditional data centers with 60-100kW and 10-12 racks may no longer be sufficient, highlighting the importance and relevance of modular data centers that can meet the dynamic needs of today’s enterprises. Amid these challenges, businesses may consider prefabricated modular solutions (PFM) and chilled water systems as more suitable options.

Use chilled water systems to accommodate high-density computing

Thermal management is an important pillar of successful data center operations. Effective thermal management not only ensures equipment reliability but also addresses issues such as cost control, operational savings and environmental sustainability.

In the past, thermal management in data centers has been dominated by direct expansion (DX) cooling units, also known as computer room air conditioners or CRAC units. These devices remove heat from the air through a vapor compression cycle. However, the market is now looking for alternative solutions that improve operational efficiency and energy efficiency, such as chilled water systems.

Chilled water systems use water instead of air for cooling. These solutions are also based on vapor compression, but often include free cooling capabilities and achieve greater overall efficiency through a wider range of centralized components outside of the white space.

In chilled water systems, refrigerant is stored in refrigeration units with pretested circuits to prevent leaks. Monitoring systems can detect leaks during operation and help prevent refrigerant loss. Chilled water systems can use other refrigerants with less impact on the atmosphere, including hydrofluoroolefins (HFO) and HFO blends.

 

Data Center Chilled Water System

 

Advantages of Chilled Water Systems

Chilled water systems offer several combined benefits, and this solution will become the dominant global cooling technology for data centers for the foreseeable future. These advantages include its inherent large-scale efficiency, the ability to take advantage of lower ambient air temperatures for free cooling, and reduced environmental impact through environmentally friendly refrigerants. These features enhance operational capabilities and align with global sustainability goals, making chilled water systems a strategic choice for future-proof data center operations.

1. Reduce carbon emissions

Chilled water systems can use low global warming potential (GWP) refrigerant types such as HFO to reduce direct emissions. To illustrate the environmental benefits of these refrigerants, let’s look at their impact on two common chillers:

Small and medium-sized data center chillers have traditionally used R410A (GWP1924), and alternatives such as natural refrigerants such as R454B (GWP466), R32 (GWP677) or R290 are now available.

Medium and large data centers have historically used chillers with screw, or centrifugal compressors to cool their equipment, using R134a coolant with a GWP of 1300. Now, they are switching to coolants such as R513A, which has a GWP of 573, or R1234ze, which has a GWP of less than 1, to reduce their environmental impact.

Chilled water systems therefore offer a more efficient alternative to traditional cooling methods and reduce direct emissions without requiring significant investments or changes to existing data center layouts.

Chilled water systems can also reduce indirect emissions by improving energy efficiency, potentially supporting partial power usage effectiveness (pPUE) below 1.1. With growing concerns about global warming and environmental sustainability, some regions are now mandating such thermal solutions.

2. Enhance data center security and flexibility

In addition to sustainability, the design of the system also deserves attention, especially given concerns about the flammability of modern refrigerants. Chilled water systems have the advantage of placing the cooling units outside the data center, mitigating any type of risk associated with the facility’s flammable refrigerants.

Additionally, chilled water systems offer inherent flexibility in outdoor cooling unit placement. Chilled water systems have no fixed configuration requirements and physical limitations and can be adapted to a variety of operational needs.

3. Improve continuity

What’s more, the chilled water system provides a strong continuity measure, utilizing auxiliary cold water storage tanks to enhance thermal reserves during power outages, ensuring uninterrupted cooling to maintain optimal operating conditions. With these multiple benefits, chilled water systems are a reliable and effective solution to meet the ever-changing demands of contemporary data center environments.

Chilled water systems are also available in non-raised floor designs, providing the flexibility to add liquid cooling to existing data centers. This is an emerging requirement for high-density computing needs that is gaining more and more attention over time.

4. The preferred solution for high-density support

Due to its reliability, scalability and enhanced thermal capacity, chilled water is used in a wide range of applications including telecommunications, government, energy/utilities, security, manufacturing and science. Chilled water is becoming the cooling method of choice for large-scale and high-performance computing applications.

 

Model One: 15 ~ 150kW

ModelZLFQ-15ZLFQ-25ZLFQ-50ZLFQ-75ZLFQ-100ZLFQ-150
Temp range +5℃~35℃+5℃~35℃+5℃~35℃+5℃~35℃+5℃~35℃+5℃~35℃
Cooling water5℃~30℃ Adopt Siemens/Honeywell regulating valve to control cooling water flow
Temperature control accuracy±0.2℃±0.5℃±0.5℃±0.5℃±0.5℃±0.5℃
flow control10~25L/min25~50L/min40~110L/min70~150L/min150~250L/min200~400L/min
The flow control is adjusted by frequency converter, the accuracy is ±0.3L/min
Cooling capacity (MAX)15kW25kW50kW75kW100kW150kW
Storage volume15L30L60L100L150L200L
BrineWater, silicone oil, fluorinated liquid, ethylene glycol aqueous solution, etc.
controllerPLC, fuzzy PID control algorithm, with cascade control algorithm
temperature controlHeat transfer medium outlet temperature control mode, with cascade control algorithm
letter of agreementEthernet interface TCP/IP protocol
RS485 interface modbus RTU protocol
Device Internal Temperature FeedbackEquipment heat transfer medium outlet temperature, medium inlet temperature, cooling water temperature
tank levelImport and export pressure sensor detection, cooling water pressure detection
Medium pipelineSUS304SUS304SUS304SUS304SUS304SUS304
Heat ExchangerPlate heat exchanger, special attention: need to use clean factory water
operation panelWuxi Guanya customized 7-inch color touch screen, temperature curve displayEXCEL data export
SecurityWith self-diagnosis function; phase sequence and phase failure protector; pressure protection, overload relay, thermal protection device and other safety protection functions.
In and out interface sizeG3/4G1G1DN32DN40DN50
Cooling water interfaceG3/4G1DN40DN50DN50DN65
cooling methodWater-cooled, the factory water temperature is lower than the minimum temperature provided by the equipment by more than 3°C, and the water temperature fluctuation is ≤3°C
Cooling water flow 7~20℃2.5m³/h4m³/h8m³/h13m³/h17m³/h25m³/h
power supply
380V 50HZ 1kW1.5kW3kW4kW5kW6kW
shellCold-rolled sheet spray RAL7035

 

Model Two: 200 ~ 500kW

ModelZLFQ-200ZLFQ-250ZLFQ-300ZLFQ-400ZLFQ-500
Temp range +5℃~35℃
Temp accuracy±0.5℃
Flow control15~30m³/h20~35m³/h25~40m³/h30~60m³/h40~70m³/h
Flow control is adjusted by frequency converter
Cooling capacity(MAX) 200kW250kW300kW400kW500kW
Storage volume250L300L600L1000L1200L
Cooling SystemThe plant service water exchanges heat with the brine, and the brine provides cooling capacity for the heating equipment
MediumWater, silicone oil, fluorinated liquid, ethylene glycol aqueous solution, etc.
controllerPLC, fuzzy PID control algorithm, with cascade control algorithm
temperature controlHeat transfer medium outlet temperature control mode式
letter of agreementEthernet interface TCP/IP protocol
RS485 interface modbus RTU protocol
Device Internal Temperature FeedbackEquipment heat transfer medium outlet temperature, medium inlet temperature, cooling water temperature
tank levelPressure sensor real-time monitoring
Medium pipelineSUS304
System pressureUsing the pressure sensor to detect and display on the touch screen
Heat ExchangerPlate heat exchanger, special attention: need to use clean factory water
operation panelWuxi Guanya customized 7-inch color touch screen, temperature curve displayEXCEL data export
SecurityWith self-diagnosis function; phase sequence and phase failure protector; pressure protection, overload relay, thermal protection device and other safety protection functions.
In and out interface sizeDN65DN65DN65DN80DN80
Cooling water interfaceDN80DN80DN100DN100DN125
cooling methodWater-cooled, the factory water temperature is lower than the minimum temperature provided by the equipment by more than 3°C, and the water temperature fluctuation is ≤3°C
Cooling water flow 7~20℃34m³/h43m³/h51m³/h69m³/h86m³/h
Power supply 380V 50HZ7kW7kW8kW9kW13kW
shellCold-rolled sheet spray RAL7035

 

cooling distribution unit

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