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Cooling Water Circulator

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Working principle of cooling water circulator

Cooling water circulator is a kind of water cooling equipment, which can provide cooling water equipment with constant temperature, constant flow and constant pressure. Its working principle is to inject a certain amount of water into the water tank in the machine first, cool the water through the refrigeration system, and then send the low-temperature cooling water to the equipment that needs to be cooled by the water pump, and the frozen water will take away the heat and then return to the water tank after the temperature rises , to achieve the cooling effect. The cooling water temperature can be automatically adjusted according to requirements, and long-term use can save water. Therefore, cooling water circulator is a standard energy-saving equipment.


Cooling Water Circulator


Parts structure of cooling water circulator

The basic refrigeration system that constitutes the cooling water circulator mainly has four major components: compressor, evaporator, condenser, and expansion valve. In addition, in order to improve the performance of the refrigeration system and achieve better performance, there are usually many auxiliary devices: liquid line solenoid valves, sight glass, liquid line dry filters, high and low pressure controllers, etc. The structural components of the cooling water circulator are introduced one by one as follows:

1. Compressor function

In the cooling water circulator, the compressor is the “heart” that guarantees the power of refrigeration. The compressor is used to increase the pressure of the refrigerant in the system, so that the refrigerant circulates in the refrigeration system to achieve the purpose of refrigeration. Compressors are divided into three categories according to their structure: open type, semi-hermetic type and fully enclosed type. In laboratory equipment, most cooling water circulators with cooling water above 0°C use fully enclosed compressors, and low-temperature cooling water below 0°C use semi-hermetic compressors. The hermetic refrigeration compressor is a compressor and a motor together, which are installed in a closed iron shell to form a whole. From the outside, there are only the suction and exhaust pipe joints of the compressor and the wires of the motor; the compressor casing is divided into upper and lower parts. After the compressor and the motor are installed, the upper and lower iron casings are welded together by electric welding, and cannot be disassembled at ordinary times, so the machine is reliable. Among the hermetic refrigeration compressors, there are piston compressors and scroll compressors.

2. Condenser function

The high-temperature and high-pressure Freon in the refrigeration system enters the condenser after coming out of the compressor, releases a large amount of heat to the cooling medium, and is cooled and liquefied. Then, the condenser can be divided into three types according to its cooling form: water-cooled, air-cooled, evaporative and water-cooled.

2-1. Water-cooled type: In the water-cooled condenser, the heat released by the refrigerant is taken away by the cooling water. The cooling water can flow through once or be recycled. When circulating water is used, a cooling water tower or cold water pool is required. Water-cooled condensers have shell-and-tube, casing, and submerged structures. The condenser used in the water-cooled cooling water cycle machine is commonly used as a shell-and-tube condenser. The shell is made of steel pipes with a thickness of more than 5mm. After anti-rust treatment, the pressure resistance is 20Kg/square centimeter. The heat exchange tube is made of high-efficiency high-efficiency seamless copper tube with a pressure resistance of 10Kg/square centimeter. The caps at both ends are interchangeable to change the direction of the water pipe.

2-2. Air-cooled: In the air-cooled condenser, the heat released by the refrigerant is taken away by the air. Its structural form is mainly composed of several groups of copper tubes. Due to the poor heat transfer performance of the air, fins are usually added outside the copper tubes to increase the heat transfer area on the air side. At the same time, a fan is used to accelerate the air flow. Forced convection of air to increase heat dissipation.

2-3. Evaporation type and water spray type: In this type of condenser, the refrigerant is condensed inside the tube, and the outside of the tube is cooled by water and air at the same time.

3. Evaporator function

When the freon liquid in the refrigeration system enters the expansion valve and then is sent to the evaporator, it belongs to the vaporization process. At this time, it needs to absorb a large amount of heat to gradually reduce the temperature of the cooled valence to achieve the effect of cooling. Then, according to the type of medium to be cooled, it can be divided into two categories: evaporators for cooling liquid (water) (dry evaporators) and evaporators for cooling air (surface-cooled evaporators). The evaporator used in the cooling water circulator refrigeration system is mainly introduced here, which is generally a dry shell-and-tube evaporator. The heat exchange tube is made of high-efficiency seamless copper tube, which is processed into internal thread rib tube by embossing process, which increases the heat transfer area and improves the heat transfer efficiency. The pressure resistance is 20Kg/square centimeter; The exchange tube and the end plate are combined by expansion tubes, and a partition is added inside the end cover to divide the refrigerant into multiple channels to keep the refrigerating oil backflow. The refrigerant liquid pipe and low-pressure pipe are connected by a working valve.

4. Function of thermal expansion valve

The thermal expansion valve is a throttling and pressure-reducing component that reduces the condensing pressure of the refrigerant to the evaporating pressure, so it plays an essential role in the refrigeration system. It is combined with the refrigeration compressor, evaporator, and condenser. It is the four major components of the refrigeration system.



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